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Adventurous Needs

 

The needs of the Adventurous type are derived from John M. Oldham's description of the Adventurous style. In Stoic philosophical and psychological theory these needs are vices. They are analogous to Karen Horney's neurotic needs, which are better called irrational needs. They are irrational because they require things not in our power and involve false judgment of what is good or evil. (see G. Sterling).

Irrational needs are vices. The vices listed below are based on certain false values. The source of every vice is a false judgment of what is good or evil. But our judgments are in our power. Therefore, our vices are in our power.

The idealized image is chiefly a glorification of the needs which have developed (Horney, pg. 277).

  • needs the thrill of risk (Oldham, 227)
  • needs to keep moving (228)
  • needs the peak experience that lets them know just how powerfully alive they are (228)
  • needs to get what they want even if it means flaunting the social order (228)
  • needs intense visceral experience for their own sakes (228-29)
  • needs to avoid concern for consequences (229)
  • needs to avoid discipline, especially that imposed by others and by society (230)
  • needs to be easy with money (230)
  • needs to live in the now, reacting immediately to impulse, enjoying an unrestrained, nonconformist existence, and taking numerous risks (232)
  • needs to live according to whim, without self-control or thought of consequence (232)
  • needs to express their feelings and emotions immediately (233)
  • needs to avoid being confined, unable to act (233)
  • needs to avoid conventional rules and obligations; needs to go beyond established limits (235)
  • needs to do what they please (235)
  • needs to be faced with challenge (235)
  • needs for work to provide constant challenge, new projects, and renewed excitement (235)
  • needs to avoid persons and things that are uninteresting (235)
  • needs to outwit conventional obligations (236)
  • needs to live by just an inner sense of right and wrong and to ignore the "official version." (236)
  • needs action, excitement, and change (236)
  • needs the pleasures of the flesh (237)
  • needs from relationships mostly pleasurable excitement (237)
  • needs a variety of sexual experiences (238)
  • needs to avoid being obligated to anyone (238)
  • needs a partner who will ask little of them but give a lot (241)
  • needs pleasure (241)
  • needs to wander away from home often (241)

Antisocial personality, or character, disorder is comprised of these and other irrational needs, or vices.


Values of the Adventurous Type



Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: W. W. Norton.

John M. Oldham and Lois B. Morris (1995). The New Personality Self-Portrait: Why You Think, Work, Love, and Act the Way You Do. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.

Grant Sterling (2005). "Core Stoicism." International Stoic Forum.





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Key to the Stoic Philosophy of Epictetus