|PTypes - Personality Types
In Theories of Personality, Hall and Lindzey (pp. 381-393) identify Hans Eysenck as one of the most important factor analysis theorists and summarize his position after a general characterization of his contribution:
The work of H. J. Eysenck is characterized by a tough-minded disdain for existing preconceptions and convictions concerning personality and a readiness to study behavior on a large scale, using techniques in areas where they have not customarily been applied. He combines the traditional excellence of British psychologists in the use of quantitative techniques with an interest in the study of phenomena of personality in a psychiatric setting. This attempted synthesis of the procedural sophistication of the psychometrician with the insights of the clinician represents a valuable and distinctive emphasis. Eysenck has shown a preference for conceptions of behavior that are simple and relatively operational. He is convinced that in the long run theory and experiment must go arm and arm, as theories which carry the excess baggage of undefined terms must eventually perish. Further, he has demonstrated a highly developed critical sense which he has not hesitated to employ against the strongest of contemporary theoretical and empirical strongholds. To all of these qualities he has added the capacity to attract, stimulate, and coordinate a large group of able collaborators and students so that the volume of work he has turned out during the past decade s quite remarkable even by prolific American standards. (pp. 381-382)
- APA Presidents Remember Hans Eysenck
Hans Eysenck was clearly one of the great visionaries of twentieth century psychology.
He led the way in defining the structure of human personality. Identifying the structure of something as complex as human personality is truly one of the grand accomplishments of twentieth century psychology - indeed twentieth century science in general. We do not have all the answers about human personality of course, but we have many in large part because of Hans's work. He led the way in seeking the biological and brain bases of individual differences, especially personality. He saw personality as one of the central integrating concepts in human behavior. He developed leading tests of personality that are used around the world today. -- Frank Farley.
As Nick Cummings has pointed out, Hans was a devastating critic of conventional psychotherapy. In his 1953 article he raised questions about the efficacy of psychoanalytic psychotherapy and laid the foundation for the rapid development of behavior therapy. He wrote extensively on crime and personality, where his work took an interesting perspective because he considered problems in crime to result from the lack of conditioning of anxiety as a way of inhibiting anti-social and aggressive behavior.
I would like to reflect a little bit on my personal relationship with Hans. He was known to be a very outspoken person, but if you got to know him - and in his own view - he was extremely introverted. It was difficult for him even to engage in a conversation with someone he didn't know. Because of this introversion, he came across as rather harsh and critical. But when you got to know him, he was an extremely helpful person. He really cared about other people. -- Charles Spielberger.
For more than fifty years he has led the struggle to bring science to bear on the most significant issues of our times; a skeptic, who insists that human aspirations conform to fact, not vice-versa.
He led and he won the battle to put therapy on a scientific, behavioral footing.
For the reach of his visionary intellect, for the grasp of his scholarly achievements, for his students that have fanned across the globe to lead the next generation, for his good sense, for his vigorous voice, for his devotion to fact and above all for his unflagging courage, we recognise Hans Eysenck as a leader in psychological science. -- Martin Seligman.
- Hans Eysenck - Dr. C. George Boeree.
Eysenck�s theory is based primarily on physiology and genetics.
Although he is a behaviorist who considers learned habits of great importance,
he considers personality differences as growing out of our genetic inheritance.
He is, therefore, primarily interested in what is usually called temperament.
- Upstream: People: Hans J. Eysenck
At the time of his death in 1997, Eysenck was the de-facto leader
of the London school of differential psychology, noted for its
realism about hereditarian factors in human psychology, and traceable
back to Sir Francis Galton (the eminent Victorian and cousin
of Darwin). His hard-edged intellect and enquiring spirit
will not be replaced easily, as the rise of empirical evidence
to support the role of heredity is met with fierce and concerted
ideological opposition and intellectual suppression.
- Hans Eysenck (1916-1997) - Chris Brand.
Hall, Calvin S. and Gardner Lindzey.
Theories of Personality. New York: Wiley, 1957.
Social Reformer: Betty Friedan
- The Mystique of Betty Friedan - 99.09 - The Atlantic Monthly.
In the thirty-six years since The Feminine Mystique appeared, much has been written challenging the authority of the sources on which Friedan relied, raising the uncomfortable question of whether a book can arrive at the larger truths if the bricks on which it is built won't stand up to time.
- The Feminist's Mistake? - Newsweek: Arts: Books.
A new book challenges Betty Friedan's oft-told story of her life as a trapped suburban housewife.
- Betty Friedan : Her Life by Judith Adler Hennessee.
- Before feminism, she focused her activism on fighting for the cause of labor unions against big business.
- She wanted to be an actress.
- Her female friends notwithstanding, she was known as the feminist who didn't like women.
- A champion of the family, she had a lusty and violent marriage.
- Her husband, Carl, was the first to realize that The Feminine
Mystique would be a success--but it was the book and his wife's
fame that precipitated the breakup of their marriage.
- NOW, the first feminist organization she founded, was never meant to be all-inclusive. Friedan envisioned it as a group that would be able to work things out with those in power.
- Even though she was a founder of three of the most important organizations of the women's movement--NOW, NWPC, NARAL--two of them shunted her aside.
- She continually confronted Gloria Steinem, her archrival, over the movement's direction (Dust jacket).
To paraphrase a description of Franklin Delano Roosevelt [actually], she had a first-class mind and a second-class temperament. Founders of movements are not necessarily nice people. She was rude and nasty, self-serving and imperious. But power has to be taken and used, and she had the major ego and drive--the sheer nerve--to do it: she was outspoken , aggressive and demanding; she had electric energy and a catalytic presence. The very qualities that enabled her to launch her crusade, to found NOW and lead the movement through its crucial early years--the qualities that made her a leader--alienated women from her. Beyond that, as a woman she was expected to be pleasant, and as a feminist she was expected to support other women. She collaborated in her own decline by attacking everyone she disagreed with and everything that deviated from her original vision (pg. xvii).
- Salon Books | Betty Friedan: Her Life
There are two reasons you're likely to find the new biography of feminist matriarch Betty Friedan less than scintillating. One, Judith Hennessee is not a very good writer. Two, Betty Friedan is not a very good subject -- or, at least, that's what you end up thinking after you've read 100 pages or so of Hennessee's portrait.
- Betty Friedan's "secret Communist past" - Salon.
- Daniel Horowitz - Rethinking Betty Friedan and The Feminine Mystique:
Labor Union Radicalism and Cold War America - American Quarterly 48:1
Friedan's book contained themes that drew on what she had
learned in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. The Feminine Mystique had
two autobiographical narratives. One, which provided its spine and
strengthened its appeal, suggested that Friedan herself experienced
uncertainty, blocked career mobility, and an identity crisis throughout
her adult life.
The second, for which Friedan provided the
evidence though she kept the plot line and its relevance to her life
obscure, involved a concerted effort by men and corporations to suppress
the aspirations of women. Throughout her book, although she had the
evidence to do so, Friedan drew back from declaring that men--as fathers,
husbands, editors, psychologists, social scientists, educators, corporate
heads, and advertising executives--had coordinated the postwar
counterrevolution against women.
Friedan could not highlight
this second story for several reasons. As a labor journalist (and later as
a nationally-known feminist), Friedan argued for building coalitions of
men and women to fight for social justice. Any process of deradicalization
she had undergone may have impelled her to hedge her
a capitalist conspiracy. More immediately, she may have felt that to have
developed the idea of a conspiracy more fully would have undermined the
book's impact, given what middle-class women supposedly believed about
their situations at the time. Friedan had to hide her own radical past and
create a believable persona. Perhaps guessing at how far she might push an
audience whose consciousness she wished to raise, she decided that she had
to temper her position.
- Living with Insanity - CarlFriedan.com
Before you continue on my website, know this: I am incensed about misleading allegations of spousal abuse made by my ex-wife, Betty Friedan. They are all delusions, but in challenging these flights of fantasy I carefully make a huge divide between, one, her historical role in leading the feminist cause and, two, her current revamping of our personal history. I am proud of what she did for the world, but am appalled by her misrepresenting our personal family past with outright falsehoods just to satisfy her own legacy.
About six years ago I was interviewed by a writer working on a biography of Betty Friedan. In the course of our talk she said, "Everywhere I went I've heard one description of Betty over and over - a monster!" Betty being monstrous in the pursuit of her goals doesn't bother me at all. She changed the course of history almost singlehandedly and it took a "monster" perhaps, a driven, super-aggressive, egocentric, almost lunatic dynamo to rock the world the way she did. Unfortunately, she was that same person at home, where this kind of conduct doesn't work. She simply never understood this.
- Google Search: "Betty Friedan"
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