Obsessive-Compulsive temperament type
The basic trait of the Obsessive-Compulsive temperament type is a pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfectionism, and mental and interpersonal control. The Obsessive-Compulsive temperament type:
- is perfectionistic;
- is preoccupied with details, rules, lists, order, organization, or schedules;
- insists that others submit to his way of doing things;
- is devoted to work and productivity;
- avoids, postpones, or protracts decision making;
- is conscientious, scrupulous, and inflexible about matters of morality, ethics, or values;
- is reluctant to express affection;
- does not give time, money, or gifts when no personal gain is likely to result;
- does not discard worn out or worthless objects even when they have no sentimental value.
The Obsessive-Compulsive temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Conscientious personality
Avoidant temperament type
The basic trait of the Avoidant temperament type is a pattern of social discomfort, fear of negative evaluation, and timidity. The Avoidant temperament type:
- is easily hurt by criticism or disapproval;
- has few close friends;
- does not get involved with people unless certain of being liked;
- avoids social or occupational activities that involve significant interpersonal contact;
- is reticent in social situations;
- fears being embarrassed by blushing, crying, or showing signs of anxiety in front of other people;
- exaggerates the potential difficulties, physical dangers, or risks involved in doing something ordinary but outside his usual routine;
- yearns for affection and acceptance.
The Avoidant temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Sensitive personality
Paranoid temperament type
The basic trait of the Paranoid temperament type is a pattern of distrust and suspiciousness of others such that their motives are interpreted as malevolent. The Paranoid temperament type:
- expects to be exploited or harmed by others;
- questions the loyalty or trustworthiness of friends or associates;
- reads hidden demeaning or threatening meanings into benign remarks or events;
- bears grudges or is unforgiving of insults or slights;
- is reluctant to confide in others because of fear that the information will be used against him;
- is easily slighted and quick to react with anger or to counterattack;
- questions fidelity of spouse or sexual partner.
The Paranoid temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Vigilant personality
Histrionic temperament type
The basic trait of the Histrionic temperament type is a pattern of emotionality and attention-seeking. The Histrionic temperament type:
- often seeks or demands reassurance, approval, or praise;
- is sexually seductive in appearance or behavior;
- is very concerned with physical attractiveness;
- expresses emotion with exaggeration;
- is uncomfortable in situations in which he is not the center of attention;
- displays rapidly shifting and shallow expression of emotions;
- is self-centered: actions being directed toward immediate satisfaction; has little tolerance for the frustration of delayed gratification;
- has a style of speech that is impressionistic and lacking in detail.
The Histrionic temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Dramatic personality
Sadistic temperament type
The basic trait of the Sadistic temperament type is a pattern of cruel, demeaning, and aggressive behavior in support of a driving need to dominate. The Sadistic temperament type:
- has used aggression or the threat of violence for the purpose of establishing dominance in a relationship;
- humiliates or demeans people in the presence of others;
- has treated or disciplined someone under his control unusually harshly;
- takes some pleasure in the psychological or physical suffering of others (including animals);
- has lied for the purpose of harming or inflicting pain on others;
- gets other people to do what he wants by frightening them (through intimidation or even terror);
- restricts the autonomy of people with whom he has a close relationship;
- is fascinated by violence, weapons, martial arts, injury, or torture.
The Sadistic temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Aggressive personality
Schizotypal temperament type
The basic trait of the Schizotypal temperament type is a pattern of discomfort in close relationships, unusual cognitive or perceptual experiences, and eccentricities of behavior. The Schizotypal temperament type:
- has ideas of reference, i.e., seeing chance events as related to himself;
- has social anxiety, e.g., great discomfort in social situations involving unfamiliar people;
- has odd beliefs or engages in magical thinking, influencing behavior and inconsistent with cultural norms;
- has unusual perceptual experiences;
- is odd or eccentric in behavior or appearance;
- has few close friends or confidants;
- has odd speech, e.g., speech that is impoverished, digressive, vague, or inappropriately abstract;
- has inappropriate or constricted affect, e.g., is silly, aloof, rarely reciprocating gestures or facial expressions;
- is suspicious or engages in paranoid ideation.
The Schizotypal temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Idiosyncratic personality
Compensatory Narcissistic temperament type
The basic trait of the Compensatory Narcissistic temperament type is a pattern of unstable, overtly narcissistic behaviors that derive from an underlying sense of insecurity and weakness rather than from genuine feelings of self-confidence and high self-esteem. The Compensatory Narcissistic temperament type:
- seeks to create an illusion of superiority and to build up an image of high self-worth;
- has disturbances in the capacity for empathy;
- strives for recognition and prestige to compensate for the lack of a feeling of self-worth;
- may acquire a deprecatory attitude in which the achievements of others are ridiculed and degraded;
- has persistent aspirations for glory and status;
- has a tendency to exaggerate and boast;
- is sensitive to how others react to him, watches and listens carefully for critical judgment, and feels slighted by disapproval;
- is prone to feel shamed and humiliated and especially anxious and vulnerable to the judgments of others;
- covers up a sense of inadequacy and deficiency with pseudo-arrogance and pseudo-grandiosity;
- has a tendency to periodic hypochondria;
- alternates between feelings of emptiness and deadness and states of excitement and excess energy;
- entertains fantasies of greatness, constantly striving for perfection, genius, or stardom;
- has a history of searching for an idealized partner and has an intense need for affirmation and confirmation in relationships ;
- frequently entertains a wishful, exaggerated, and unrealistic concept of himself which he can't possibly measure up to;
- produces (too quickly) work not up to the level of his abilities because of an overwhelmingly strong need for the immediate gratification of success;
- is touchy, quick to take offense at the slightest provocation, continually anticipating attack and danger, reacting with anger and fantasies of revenge when he feels himself frustrated in his need for constant admiration;
- is self-conscious, due to a dependence on approval from others;
- suffers regularly from repetitive oscillations of self-esteem ;
- seeks to undo feelings of inadequacy by forcing everyones's attention and admiration upon himself;
- may react with self-contempt and depression to the lack of fulfillment of his grandiose expectations.
The Compensatory Narcissistic temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Inventive personality
Schizoid temperament type
The basic trait of the Schizoid temperament type is a pervasive pattern of indifference to social relationships and a restricted range of emotional experience and expression. The Schizoid temperament type:
- has little desire for, or enjoyment of, close relationships;
- usually chooses solitary activities;
- has little interest in having sexual experiences with another person;
- takes pleasure in few activities;
- has few close friends or confidants other than first-degree relatives;
- appears indifferent to praise and criticism;
- shows emotional coldness, detachment, or flattened affectivity.
The Schizoid temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Solitary personality
Passive-Aggressive temperament type
The basic trait of the Passive-Aggressive temperament type is a pattern of negativistic attitudes and passive resistance to demands for adequate performance. The Passive-Aggressive temperament type:
- passively resists fulfilling routine social and occupational tasks;
- complains of being misunderstood and unappreciated by others;
- is sullen and argumentative;
- unreasonably criticizes and scorns authority;
- expresses envy and resentment toward those apparently more fortunate;
- voices exaggerated and persistent complaints of personal misfortune;
- alternates between hostile defiance and contrition.
The Passive-Aggressive temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Leisurely personality
Depressive temperament type
The basic trait of the Depressive temperament type is a pattern of depressive cognition and behavior. The Depressive temperament type:
- has a mood often dominated by dejection, gloominess, cheerlessness, joylessness, or unhappiness;
- has a self-concept which includes beliefs of inadequacy, worthlessness, and low self-esteem;
- is critical, blaming, and derogatory toward self;
- is brooding and given to worry;
- is negativistic, critical, and judgmental toward others;
- is pessimistic;
- is prone to feeling guilty and remorseful.
The Depressive temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Serious personality
Masochistic temperament type
The basic trait of the Masochistic temperament type is a pattern of avoiding or undermining pleasurable experiences, being drawn to situations or experiences in which he will suffer, and preventing help from others. The Masochistic temperament type:
- chooses people and situations that lead to disappointment, failure, or mistreatment even when better options are clearly available;
- rejects or renders ineffective the attempts of others to help him;
- following positive personal events responds with depression, guilt, or a behavior that produces pain;
- incites angry or rejecting responses from others and then feels hurt, defeated, or humiliated;
- rejects opportunities for pleasure, or is reluctant to acknowledge enjoying himself;
- fails to accomplish tasks crucial to his personal objectives despite demonstrated ability to do so;
- has little interest in or rejects people who consistently treat him well;
- engages in self-sacrifice that is unsolicited by the intended recipient of the sacrifice.
The Masochistic temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Self-Sacrificing personality
Dependent temperament type
The basic trait of the Dependent temperament type is a pattern of dependent and submissive behavior. The Dependent temperament type:
- is reluctant to make everyday decisions without advice and reassurance;
- allows others to make many of his decisions;
- agrees with people even when he believes they are wrong, because of fear or being rejected;
- has difficulty initiating projects or doing things on his own;
- volunteers to do things that are unpleasant or demeaning in order to get other people to like him;
- feels uncomfortable or helpless when alone, or goes to great length to avoid being alone;
- feels devastated or helpless when close relationships end;
- is frequently preoccupied with fears of being abandoned;
- is easily hurt by criticism or disapproval.
The Dependent temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Devoted personality
Narcissistic temperament type
The basic trait of the Narcissistic temperament type is a pattern of grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy. The Narcissistic temperament type:
- has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements);
- is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love;
- believes that he is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions);
- requires continuous admiration;
- has a sense of entitlement, i.e., expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his expectations;
- is interpersonally exploitive, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his own ends;
- lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others;
- is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him;
- shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.
The Narcissistic temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Self-Confident personality
Antisocial temperament type
The basic trait of the Antisocial temperament type is a pattern of disregard for the rights of others. The Antisocial temperament type:
- has difficulty sustaining consistent work behavior;
- does not conform to social norms;
- is irritable and aggressive;
- sometimes fails to honor financial obligations;
- fails to plan ahead, or is impulsive;
- is careless with the truth;
- is reckless regarding his own or others personal safety;
- does not assume enough responsibility as a parent;
- does not sustain monogamous relationships;
- lacks remorse for wrongdoing.
The Antisocial temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Adventurous personality
Borderline temperament type
The basic trait of the Borderline temperament type is
instability of mood, personal relationships, and self-image. The Borderline temperament type:
- has unstable and intense personal relationships and alternates between the idealization and devaluation of others;
- is impulsive in the areas of spending, sex, substance use, shopping, driving, or eating;
- is subject to frequent shifts of mood, including depression, irritability, and anxiety;
- displays inappropriate, intense anger or lack of control of anger;
- experiences uncertainty about self-image, sexuality, long-term goals or career choice, types of friends desired, or preferred values;
- experiences frequent feelings of emptiness or boredom;
- is preoccupied with avoiding abandonment;
- engages in self-destructive threats, gestures, or behavior;
The Borderline temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Mercurial personality
Cyclothymic temperament type
The basic trait of the Cyclothymic temperament type is a pattern of alternation between hypomanic or irritable, and depressive moods, cognitions, and behaviors. The Cyclothymic temperament type:
- has a decreased need for sleep alternating with hypersomnia;
- has shaky self-esteem: naive grandiose overconfidence alternating with lack of self-confidence;
- has periods of sharpened and creative thinking alternating with periods of mental confusion and apathy;
- displays marked unevenness in the quantity and quality of productivity, often associated with unusual working hours;
- engages in uninhibited people-seeking (that may lead to hyper-sexuality) alternating with introverted self-absorption;
- becomes excessively involved in pleasurable activities with lack of concern for the high potential of painful consequences alternating with restriction of involvement in pleasurable activities and guilt over past activities;
- alternates between over-optimism or exaggeration of past achievement and a pessimistic attitude toward the future, or brooding about past events;
- is more talkative than usual, with inappropriate laughing, joking, and punning: and, then, less talkative, with tearfulness or crying;
- frequently shifts line of work, study, interest, or future plans;
- engages in occasional financial extravagance;
- makes frequent changes in residence or geographical location;
- has a tendency toward promiscuity, with repeated conjugal or romantic failure;
- may use alcohol or drugs to control moods or to augment excitement.
The Cyclothymic temperament type represents the personality organization underlying the Artistic personality
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Adapted from: American Psychiatric Association.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd ed., Rev.(1987) and 4th ed.(1994). Washington: American Psychiatric Association.