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PTypes Basic False Value Judgements Irrational Strategies for Happiness



Viciousness ('Badness') by Personality Style


Stoics find the source of vice in false value judgments. But our judgments are in our power. So, our vices are in our power.

In Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders, Aaron beck (pg.21) presented in a table the "Basic Beliefs and Strategies Associated with Traditional Personality Disorders". Material from that table, as applied to nine of the personality styles, is included below. I've added what I think are the implicit false value judgements that underly the beliefs and strategies.


Personality Style. Basic belief/attitude. [False value judgment] Strategy (overt behavior).


Conscientious. "I must not err." [Mistakes are bad.] Perfectionism.

Sensitive. "I may get hurt." [Getting hurt would be bad.] Avoidance.

Vigilant. "People are dangerous." [People are a threat to me, and that is bad.] Wariness.

Dramatic. "I need to impress.[It would be bad if I were not able to impress others.] Dramatics.

Aggressive. "I must be in charge." [Power is good.] Dominance.

Idiosyncratic. "I must not be like others." [Non-conformity is good.] Eccentricity.

Inventive. "I should be recognized and approved of." [Not being recognized and approved of is bad.] Striving for recognition and approval.

Solitary. "I need plenty of space." [Solitude is good; having to be with others is bad.] Isolation.

Leisurely. "I could be controlled." [Being controlled would be bad.] Resistance.

Serious. "Life is work." [Hard work is good.] Keeping one's nose to the grindstone.

Self-Sacrificing. "Others should appreciate what I do for them." [Being needed is good.] Helping.

Devoted. "I am helpless." [It is bad that I have no one to help me.]. Attachment.

Self-Confident. "I am special." [It is bad when people don't treat me as special.] Self-aggrandizement.

Adventurous. "Others are to be taken." [It's good to get the best of others, but bad to be bested by them.] Attack.

Mercurial. "I must always be in a relationship." [Being alone is bad.] Relationship-seeking.

Exuberant. "Life must be pleasurable and exciting." [Not having pleasurable and exciting experiences is bad.] Sensation-seeking.



Aaron T. Beck, Arthur Freeman, Denise D. Davis (2003). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford

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