PTypes - Personality Types
PTypes Neurotic Solutions Borderline

Neurotic Solution: Antisocial Type 

The strategy of the Antisocial solution can be interpreted from the discussion by John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris of the Adventurous personality style.

Antisocial Personality Disorder
Adventurous Personality Type
Expansive Solution 




Neurotic Needs

Compulsive Attachments

Compulsive Aversions

  • excitement
  • adventure
  • conniving
  • manipulation
  • exploitation
  • being a loner
  • autonomy
  • strength
  • victimizing others
  • being predatory
  • breaking the rules of society
  • looking out for oneself
  • being an aggressor
  • being one of the "haves"
  • being on the attack
  • getting what you deserve
  • boredom
  • routine
  • being abused by society
  • a "dog-eat-dog" world
  • exploitation by others
  • weak and vulnerable people
  • being a victim
  • being a patsy or wimp
  • being a "have-not"
  • being attacked
  • not getting what you deserve




Neurotic Solution

American Psychiatric Association (1994, pp. 649-50)

Disregard for and violation of the rights of others.

  • failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest;
  • deceitfulness, as indicated by repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure;     
  • impulsivity or failure to plan ahead;    
  • irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults;     
  • reckless disregard for safety of self or others; .
  • consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations;     
  • lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.




Neurotic Beliefs and Attitudes 

Rationalizations and reinforcements of the compulsive attachments and aversions and the neurotic solution that they engender.

Aaron T. Beck, Arthur M. Freeman and associates (pg. 361)

  • I have to look out for myself.
  • Force or cunning is the best way to get things done.
  • We live in a jungle and the strong person is the one who survives.
  • People will get at me if I don't get them first.
  • It is not important to keep promises or honor debts.
  • Lying and cheating are OK as long as you don't get caught.
  • I have been unfairly treated and am entitled to get my fair share by whatever means I can.
  • Other people are weak and deserve to be taken.
  • If I don't push other people, I will get pushed around.
  • I should do whatever I can get away with.
  • What others think of me doesn't really matter.
  • If I want something, I should do whatever is necessary to get it.
  • I can get away with things so I don't need to worry about bad consequences.
  • If people can't take care of themselves, that's their problem. 





Idealized Image

The particular "solution" is idealized (Horney, 1950, pg. 22)


John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris (pp. 227-28):


"Throw caution to the winds -- here comes the Adventurer. Who but Adventurers would have taken those long leaps for mankind -- crossed the oceans, broken the sound barrier, walked on the moon? The men and women with this personality style venture where most mortals fear to tread. They are not bound by the same terrors and worries that limit most of us. They live on the edge, challenging boundaries and restrictions, pitting themselves for better or for worse in a thrilling game against their own mortality. No risk, no reward, they say. Indeed, for people with the Adventurous personality style, the risk is the reward." 


  1. Nonconformity. Men and women who have the Adventurous personality style live by their own internal code of values. They are not strongly influenced by other people or by the norms of society.

  2. Challenge. To live is to dare. Adventurers love the thrill of risk and routinely engage in high-risk activities.

  3. Mutual independence. They do not worry too much about others, for they expect each human being to be responsible for him- or herself.

  4. Persuasiveness. They are silver-tongued, gifted in the gentle art of winning friends and influencing people.

  5. Wanderlust. They love to keep moving. They settle down only to have the urge to pick up and go, explore, move out, move on. They do not worry about finding work, and live well by their talents, skills, ingenuity, and wits.

  6. Wild oats. In their childhood and adolescence, people with the Adventurous personality style were usually high-spirited hell-raisers and mischief makers.

  7. True grit. They are courageous, physically bold, and tough. They will stand up to anyone who dares to take advantage of them.

  8. No regrets. Adventurers live in the present. They do not feel guilty about the past or anxious about the future. Life is meant to be experienced now.


Attributes of the Idealized Image


  1. Non-conformity, internal code of values.
  2. Courage, boldness, challenge-seeking, loving thrill of risk, engaging in high-risk activities.
  3. Independence, self-sufficiency, self-reliance, responsibility for self.
  4. Persuasiveness, winning, influential.
  5. Spontaneity, wanderlust, exploration, discovery, talent, skill, ingenuity, wits.
  6. High-spiritedness.
  7. Aggressiveness, toughness, standing-up to exploitation.
  8. Emotional stability, without regrets, without anxiety about the future, living in the now.

Belief in themselves, definite inner sense of what's right or wrong for them, living in the here and now, wits, ingenuity, physical prowess, sheer guts (Oldham, 229); living for the present, not worrying about going under, easiness with money, appreciation of possibilities in any moment, eternal optimism (230); spontaneity, fun-loving (231); living in the now, reacting immediately to impulse, enjoying an unrestrained, non-conformist existence, taking numerous risks (232); not hiding feelings, emotional honesty, cheerfulness, eagerness to enjoy life, optimism, resilience (233); strong appreciation of challenge (234); players, can work well with discipline, concentration, responsibility, good talkers, instinct and ingenuity rather than intellect, easily bored (235); innovativeness, resourcefulness, outwit conventional obligations, create their own opportunities, inner sense of right and wrong (236); charisma (237); non-monogamous (238); wanderlust (240); exciting, interesting, non-critical, energy, curiosity, good spirit, romantic swashbuckling, freedom-loving (242); spontaneity, ability to act, strength, fearlessness, ability to experience pleasure, tendency to live life to the fullest (243); free of anxiety (244).




Neurotic Pride




Neurotic Claims




Neurotic Search for Glory

 The neurotic search for glory is the comprehensive drive to actualize the idealized self. Besides self-idealization it consists of the need for perfection, neurotic ambition, and the drive for vindictive triumph. The need for perfection functions in the personality as, what Horney called, "tyrannical shoulds."

Tyrannical Shoulds








American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington: Author.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed., text revision. Washington: Author.

Aaron T. Beck, Arthur M. Freeman and Associates (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Terry D. Cooper (2003). Sin, Pride, and Self-Acceptance: The Problem of Identity in Theology and Psychology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: W. W. Norton.

John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris (1995). The New Personality Self-Portrait. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.

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