PTypes - Personality Types
PTypes Neurotic Solutions Obsessive-Compulsive

Neurotic Solution: Cyclothymic Type 

Cyclothymic Personality Disorder
Exuberant Personality Type
Expansive Solution 




Neurotic Needs

Compulsive Attachments

Compulsive Aversions

  • immediate physical pleasure (good food, drink, sex, etc.)
  • heightened emotional intensity (love, risk, danger, art, conquest, etc.)
  • a thing, experience, or activity that helps one develop and/or reaffirm a realistically based self-control
  • creativity
  • skill
  • know-how
  • expertise
  • dignity
  • distance
  • freedom
  • passion
  • leadership ability
  • energy
  • drive
  • optimism
  • lack of inhibition
  • heightened mood
  • self-confidence
  • decreased need for sleep
  • irritability
  • aggressive behavior
  • increased physical and mental activity
  • rapid speech and thinking
  • impulsiveness
  • adventurous behavior in spending, business, driving, and sexual relations
  • lack of creativity
  • lack of passion
  • lack of leadership ability
  • lack of energy
  • lack of drive
  • pessimism
  • inhibition
  • depressed mood
  • lack of self-confidence
  • markedly diminished interest or pleasure in almost all activities
  • significant changes in appetite or sleep patterns
  • lack of motivation
  • lethargy
  • feelings of guilt or unworthiness
  • lack of concentration, indecisiveness
  • slowing speech, thought, and body movement
  • physical agitation and restlessness
  • thoughts of death and suicide




Neurotic Solution

Pronounced periodic changes in mood, behavior, thinking, sleep, and energy levels.



  • has depressive periods: depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities and pastimes alternating with hypomanic periods: elevated, expansive, or irritable mood (American Psychiatric Association, 1980, pg. 220);


  • becomes excessively involved in pleasurable activities with lack of concern for the high potential of painful consequences alternating with restriction of involvement in pleasurable activities and guilt over past activities (pg. 220);


  • alternates between over-optimism or exaggeration of past achievement and a pessimistic attitude toward the future, or brooding about past events (pg. 220);


  • is more talkative than usual, with inappropriate laughing, joking, and punning: and, then, less talkative, with tearfulness or crying (pg. 220);


  • has a decreased need for sleep alternating with hypersomnia (Akiskal,  Khani, and Scott-Strauss qtd. in Jamison, pg. 264); 1


  • has shaky self-esteem: naive grandiose overconfidence alternating with lack of self-confidence (pg. 264);


  • has periods of sharpened and creative thinking alternating with periods of mental confusion and apathy (pg. 264);


  • displays marked unevenness in the quantity and quality of productivity, often associated with unusual working hours (pg. 264);


  • engages in uninhibited people-seeking (that may lead to hyper-sexuality) alternating with introverted self-absorption (pg. 264);


  • frequently shifts line of work, study, interest, or future plans (pg. 264);


  • engages in occasional financial extravagance (pg. 264);


  • has a tendency toward promiscuity, with repeated conjugal or romantic failure (pg. 264);


  • may use alcohol or drugs to control moods or to augment excitement (pg. 264);


  • has irritable-angry-explosive outbursts that alienate loved ones (pg. 264);


  • makes frequent changes in residence or geographical location (Akiskal, 1995, pg. 1143).  




Neurotic Beliefs and Attitudes 

Rationalizations and reinforcements of the compulsive attachments and aversions and the neurotic solution that they engender.

Cory F. Newman et al (pp. 73-74)

  • Life is boring if I stay in control of my moods.
  • I can't be creative unless I am in a high state of mind.
  • Being manic enables me to overcome my shyness.
  • I wouldn't be able to cope with life if I weren't so happy once in a while.
  • My moods are not a problem. I could control them if everybody just got off my case.
  • I can't get things accomplished unless I'm racing.
  • Why shouldn't I do wild and crazy things? It's my life!  





Idealized Image

The particular "solution" is idealized (Horney, 1950, pg. 22)

  1. Mood swings. Those of the Artistic temperament tend to experience a greater range of emotion than those of any other type. They are very emotionally reactive.

  2. Artistic inclinations. The Artistic type is the most inclined of all the types to be involved with the fine arts, music, or literature (Keirsey, 204). They take an artistic approach to all aspects of their lives.

  3. Independent work. Like "the majority of poets, novelists, composers, and to a lesser extent, of painters and sculptors," those of the Artistic type "are bound to spend a great deal of their time alone (Storr, ix)."

  4. Relationships secondary. Those of the Artistic temperament "are quite likely to choose relationships which will further their work rather than relationships which are intrinsically rewarding, and their spouses may well find that marital relations take second place (Storr, 107)."

  5. Great productivity. Persons of the Artistic type are highly disciplined, gifted with superior powers of concentration, and capable of producing great quantities of high quality work; they also enjoy frequent periods of recreation and inactivity.

  6. Disinhibition. They are hedonistic and impulsive; "they live Epicurean lives in the here and now, and as gracefully as possible (Keirsey, 204)."

  7. Keen perceptions. The Artistic temperament is especially attuned to color, line, texture, shading - touch, motion, seeing, and hearing in harmony. The senses of Artistic individuals seem more keenly tuned than those of others (Keirsey, 205).

  8. Kindness (Keirsey, 205). Although those of the Artistic type may adopt an aggressive, tough exterior, they are remarkably gentle, kind, and generous.

  9. Extroversion and introversion. The interpersonal conduct of those of the Artistic type alternates between the greatest extremes of sociability and social reticence.

  10. Love of nature. In many individuals of the Artistic type there "may be found an instinctive longing for the natural, the pastoral, the bucolic. They are quite at home in the wilds, and nature seems to welcome them (Keirsey, 206)."



Attributes of the Idealized Image


  1. Creativity, Originality, Humorousness, Wittiness.
  2. Energy, Diligence, Studiousness, Attentiveness, Persistence, Perseverance, Purposefulness, Resoluteness, Zealousness, Enthusiasm; Dutifulness, Honorableness; Vigilance, Alertness, Sensibility, Intelligence, Resourcefulness, Wisdom; Firmness, Tenacity, Independence.
  3. Refinement, Magnificence.
  4. Generosity, Liberality, Courtesy, Graciousness; Charity, Kindness, Affability, Empathy, Sensitivity, Concern, Friendliness; Tenderness, Agreeableness, Fraternity.
  5. Sincerity, Straightforwardness, Integrity, Justice, Fairness.
  6. Confidence, Self-Esteem, Hope, Cheerfulness, Joyfulness, Sociability.
  7. Naturalness.



Neurotic Pride




Neurotic Claims




Neurotic Search for Glory

 The neurotic search for glory is the comprehensive drive to actualize the idealized self. Besides self-idealization it consists of the need for perfection, neurotic ambition, and the drive for vindictive triumph. The need for perfection functions in the personality as, what Horney called, "tyrannical shoulds."

Tyrannical Shoulds








American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington: Author.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed., text revision. Washington: Author.

Aaron T. Beck, Arthur M. Freeman and Associates (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Terry D. Cooper (2003). Sin, Pride, and Self-Acceptance: The Problem of Identity in Theology and Psychology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: W. W. Norton.

John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris (1995). The New Personality Self-Portrait. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.

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