PTypes - Personality Types
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Needs of the Leisurely Type


The needs of the Leisurely type are derived from John M. Oldham's description of the Leisurely style. In Stoic philosophical and psychological theory these needs are vices. They are analogous to Karen Horney's neurotic needs, which are better called irrational needs. They are irrational because they require things not in our power and involve false judgment of what is good or evil. (see G. Sterling).

Irrational needs are vices. The vices listed below are based on certain false values. The source of every vice is a false judgment of what is good or evil. But our judgments are in our power. Therefore, our vices are in our power.

The idealized image is chiefly a glorification of the needs which have developed (Horney, pg. 277).

  • needs to assert their right to do their "own thing," to pursue happiness in their own personal way (Oldham, 203)
  • needs to enjoy themselves on their own terms in their own time (203)
  • needs to protect their comfort, their free time, and their individual pursuit of happiness (203)
  • needs to deliver what is expected of them and no more (203-204)
  • needs others to recognize and respect that limit (204)
  • needs to avoid being exploited (204)
  • needs to resist demands that they deem unreasonable or above and beyond the call of duty (204)
  • needs to be relaxed about time (204)
  • needs to be easygoing and optimistic that whatever needs to be done will get done, eventually (204)
  • needs to avoid being awed by authority (204)
  • needs to accept themselves and their own approach to life (204)
  • needs to believe that they are just as good as everyone else and as entitled to the best things in life (204)
  • needs to believe that blind luck often accounts for who fares well and who fares poorly (204)
  • needs to feel free (204)
  • needs to hold as a first priority the inviolable independence of the self (204)
  • needs to believe that they have a God-given right to be who they are, to feel good, to pursue their own pleasures and comforts in their own way, and that no person or institution can take these rights away from them (204)
  • needs to believe in themselves and in their inalienable right to use their personal time however they choose (205)
  • needs to avoid identifying with any outside authority (205)
  • needs to pursue his or her own private pleasure in life (205)
  • needs to perceive themselves and others as just small cogs in the cosmic wheel (205)
  • needs to be comfortable with themselves (205)
  • needs to feel entitled to be happy and to claim this right vigorously (205)
  • needs to avoid enslaving themselves to anyone or anything or substituting someone else's values for their own (205)
  • needs to be separate and independent, subject to their own dictates (205)
  • needs to do their part but beyond that they need to be free to feel good privately (205)
  • needs to be deeply entwined with other people (205)
  • needs to be taken care of (205)
  • needs companionship as well as a foolproof defense against being ill-used (205)
  • needs to protect their individual freedoms in relationships (206)
  • needs to go their own way in the end (206)
  • needs to insist that a large portion of their time is absolutely their own to do as they please, free of any outside encumbrances (209)
  • needs to refuse attempts to force them into doing something that they consider above and beyond the call of duty (209)
  • needs accepting, understanding, giving mates who are content to be in orbit around them (210)
  • needs to work not for the sake of fame or success but for security, for a pension, to finance their pursuit of pleasure, or just to have fun (212)
  • needs to avoid taking work home, to worry about it after hours, to do work that they don't believe is their responsibility, and to do more than what is asked of them to please the boss or to feel better about themselves (212)
  • needs to take advantage of all their rights (214)
  • needs to have time to themselves (214)
  • needs to avoid being pushed to do more than they think is fair or being pressured to change their priorities (216)
  • needs to express their anger in an indirect way (217)
  • needs to be left alone to do their own thing (217)
  • needs leisure time in order to enjoy themselves (217)
  • needs to protect their identities by keeping a low profile, fulfilling only those obligations to the system that they must, wishing for a stroke of good fortune to which they feel as entitled as the next guy, and then concentrating on what they want to do with their own time (217)

Passive-Aggressive personality, or character, disorder is comprised of these and other irrational needs, or vices.

Values of the Leisurely Type

Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: W. W. Norton.

John M. Oldham and Lois B. Morris (1995). The New Personality Self-Portrait: Why You Think, Work, Love, and Act the Way You Do. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.

Grant Sterling (2005). "Core Stoicism." International Stoic Forum.

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Key to the Stoic Philosophy of Epictetus