PTypes - Personality Types
PTypes Neurotic Solutions Antisocial

Neurotic Solution: Narcissistic Type 

The strategy of the Narcissistic solution can be interpreted from the discussion by John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris of the Self-Confident personality style.

Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Self-Confident Personality Type
Expansive Solution 




Neurotic Needs

Compulsive Attachments

Compulsive Aversions

  • being admired
  • aggrandizement
  • being special
  • being unique
  • status
  • superior image
  • superiority
  • special favors
  • favorable treatment
  • prestige
  • dispensations
  • privileges
  • prerogatives
  • acknowledgment of superiority by others
  • being above the rules
  • glory
  • wealth
  • position
  • power
  • success
  • ambition
  • competitiveness
  • being scorned
  • being criticized
  • being seen as common
  • being ordinary
  • being seen as inferior
  • failure
  • others not according them admiration and respect




Neurotic Solution

American Psychiatric Association (1994, pg. 661)



Grandiosity (in fantasy or behavior), need for admiration, and lack of empathy.

  • has a grandiose sense of self-importance (e.g., exaggerates achievements and talents, expects to be recognized as superior without commensurate achievements);     


  • is preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love;     


  • believes that he or she is "special" and unique and can only be understood by, or should associate with, other special or high-status people (or institutions);    


  • requires excessive admiration;     


  • has a sense of entitlement, i.e., unreasonable expectations of especially favorable treatment or automatic compliance with his or her expectations;     


  • is interpersonally exploitive, i.e., takes advantage of others to achieve his or her own ends;     


  • lacks empathy: is unwilling to recognize or identify with the feelings and needs of others;    


  • is often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him or her;     


  • shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes.




Neurotic Beliefs and Attitudes 

Rationalizations and reinforcements of the compulsive attachments and aversions and the neurotic solution that they engender.

Aaron T. Beck, Arthur M. Freeman and associates (pp. 361-62)

  • I am a very special person.
  • Since I am so superior, I am entitled to special treatment and privileges.
  • I don't have to be bound by the rules that apply to other people.
  • It is very important to get recognition, praise, and admiration.
  • If others don't respect my status, they should be punished.
  • Other people should satisfy my needs.
  • Other people should recognize how special I am.
  • It's intolerable if I'm not accorded my due respect or don't get what I'm entitled to.
  • Other people don't deserve the admiration or riches that they get.
  • People have no right to criticize me.
  • No one's needs should interfere with my own.
  • Since I am so talented, people should go out of their way to promote my career.
  • Only people as brilliant as I am understand me.
  • I have every reason to expect grand things. 




Idealized Image


The particular "solution" is idealized (Horney, 1950, pg. 22)


John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris (pp. 85-86):


Self-Confident individuals stand out. They're the leaders, the shining lights, the attention-getters in their public or private spheres. Theirs is a star quality born of self-regard, self-respect, self-certainty -- all those self words that denote a faith in oneself and a commitment to one's self-styled purpose. Combined with the ambition that marks this style, that magical self-regard can transform idle dreams into real accomplishment. The Self-Confident personality style is one of the two most goal-directed of all fourteen (the other is the Aggressive style). Self-Confident men and women know what they want, and they get it. Many of them have the charisma to attract plenty of others to their goals. They are extroverted and intensely political. They know how to work the crowd, how to motivate it, and how to lead it. Hitch on to their bandwagons, and you'll be rewarded. The Self-Confident style adds go-getting power to other personality styles. For example, it counteracts the Conscientious person's tendency to get sidetracked by details, and it fuels the Adventurous person's great feats of daring. It propels any persoanlity pattern into the realm of success. Indeed, the Self-Confident style confers an ability to be successful more than any but the Aggressive personality style.


  1. Self-regard. Self-Confident individuals believe in themselves and in their abilities. They have no doubt that they are unique and special and that there is a reason for their being on this planet.

  2. The red carpet. They expect others to treat them well at all times.

  3. Ambition. Self-Confident people are unabashedly open about their aspirations and possibilities.

  4. Politics. They are able to take advantage of the strengths and abilities of other people in order to achieve their goals, and they are shrewd in their dealings with others.

  5. Competition. They are able competitors, they love getting to the top, and they enjoy staying there.

  6. Stature. They identify with people of high rank and status.

  7. Dreams. Self-Confident individuals are able to visualize themselves as the hero, the star, the best in their role, or the most accomplished in their field.

  8. Self-awareness. These individuals have a keen awareness of their thoughts and feelings and their overall inner state of being.

  9. Poise. People with the Self-Confident personality style accept compliments, praise, and admiration gracefully and with self-possession.



Attributes of the Idealized Image


      1. Self-regard, self-respect, self-confidence, self-sufficiency, self-reliance, self-belief.
      2. Self-love, self-esteem, dignity.
      3. Ambition, aspiration.
      4. Political prudence, artful management, sagacity, shrewdness, suavity, smoothness, urbanity, diplomacy.
      5. Competitiveness, stamina, resilience.
      6. Magnificence, high-mindedness, stature.
      7. Purposefulness, imagination.
      8. Self-awareness, truthfulness.
      9. Poise, self-possession, self-assurance, self-command, aplomb.





Neurotic Pride




Neurotic Claims




Neurotic Search for Glory

 The neurotic search for glory is the comprehensive drive to actualize the idealized self. Besides self-idealization it consists of the need for perfection, neurotic ambition, and the drive for vindictive triumph. The need for perfection functions in the personality as, what Horney called, "tyrannical shoulds."

Tyrannical Shoulds








American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. 4th ed. Washington: Author.

American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV-TR. 4th ed., text revision. Washington: Author.

Aaron T. Beck, Arthur M. Freeman and Associates (1990). Cognitive Therapy of Personality Disorders. New York: Guilford Press.

Terry D. Cooper (2003). Sin, Pride, and Self-Acceptance: The Problem of Identity in Theology and Psychology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Karen Horney (1950). Neurosis and Human Growth. New York: W. W. Norton.

John M.Oldham and Lois B. Morris (1995). The New Personality Self-Portrait. Rev. ed. New York: Bantam.

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